The Silk Road or Silk Route was the trading and cultural linking wire between Europe and Asia during various periods of history. In other words Silk Road was connecting traders, pilgrims, merchants and soldiers of East and West. It was the way, how China and India used to reach the Mediterranean Sea. Length of the land route was about 6500 kilometers. Its name was derived from silk, main trading product from China. Although Silk was not the only trading item. Goods including gold, ivory, exotic plants and animals…
The Silk Road has played a significant role in development of civilizations of China, India, Ancient Persia, Arabia and Europe. It was an impact on economic, political and cultural interaction between these civilizations. Colonization of the region by Alexander The Great of Macedon in about 330 B.C. can be considered as the first interaction between East and West. It was an event, where Greek, Persian and Indian Cultures met.
It must be admitted that Silk Road was not a name of a single route. There were several divisions of it China’s silk road economic belt. The traders used to choose route depending on seasons and political situation. Bandit raids also were a tangible impact on traffic course and flows.
Main obstacles to the functioning overland Silk Road were Mongolian Empire, Revival of Islam, replacement of the Yuan dynasty by the Ming dynasty in 1368 with its isolationist policy and development of silk route by sea.
Nowadays, importance of overland Silk Road re-increased. Carrying goods on these routes is not as hard as it used to be in the past. It is also much faster than over seas transportations. Natural obstacles are solved so far.
Remaining obstacles that impact on Silk Road: Clash in Syria, Sanctions against Iran, Non stabile situation in Russia because of its war against Ukraine.
Modern Silk Road Vector
Resent set of circumstances in Syria, Iran, Russia and Ukraine made Georgia a valuable land path connecting Europe and Asia. For instance, Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline links Caspian Sea shore to Mediterranean cost of Turkey. It carries oil across Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. This pipeline also provides transportation of oil from Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.
Georgian infrastructure is widely used for import of goods and merchandise from western countries into Azerbaijan (including import from Turkey) and Armenia. This infrastructure includes Poti and Batumi ports, railway lines, highways, warehouses and other logistics facilities. Import of brand new and used Vehicles in the Caucasus region is also provided trough these facilities as well.
According to statistics of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, regular and multiple attempts to cross Georgian borders with illegal drugs may rank the country as a narcotic transit route.